The Reflexible Person

Toward an Epistemological Learning Culture

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.47061/jabsc.v1i2.971

Keywords:

vocational education, vocational training, learning culture, self-awareness, self-reflection, personality development

Abstract

Referring to the European and especially the German education system, this article first identifies that both forms of governance in educational systems as well as pedagogical professionalization have fallen behind. We present new proposals for a substantive and evidence-based reinterpretation and reshaping of what education is and can be and how educational systems can be changed. In order to address these shortcomings, we follow suggestions of a systemic-constructivist pedagogy, and highlight concrete strategies and starting points of an awareness-based system change in the field of educational system development are pointed out. This attempt to not only rethink education, but also to shape it, is based on a critical analysis of the often stagnant internal educational reforms, and the concepts and routines that characterize these stagnant reforms. We hypothesize that, in order to break free from this stagnation, a continuous self-transforming subjectivity of the responsible actors is necessary. This explanatory framework is extended in this article to the figure of the ”reflexible person” (Arnold, 2019a), whose main characteristic is reflexibility, in the sense of being reflexive as well as flexible. The reflexible person possesses practiced and strengthened competencies for observation and reflection including of the self, as well as reinterpretation and transformation. These competences are substantiated and specified as prerequisites and effective conditions for an awareness-based system change in educational systems. In addition, possible ways of promoting and developing them are pointed out.

References

Arnold, R. (2014). Leadership by personality. Springer Gabler.

Arnold, R. (2015). How to teach without instructing: 29 smart rules for educators. Rowman & Littlefield.

Arnold, R. (2017). Power of personal mastery. Rowman & Littlefield.

Arnold, R. (2019a). Escape from teaching. Rowman & Littlefield.

Arnold, R. (2019b). Fake news in science and education: Leaving weak thinking behind. Rowman & Littlefield.

Arnold, R. (2019c). Nichtwissende Beratung. Von der Intervention zur Übung [Not-knowing counseling: from intervention to practice]. Schneider.

Arnold, R. (2020). Berufsbildung und Persönlichkeitsentwicklung in Zeiten disruptiver Innovationen. In R. Arnold, A. Lipsmeier, & M. Rohs (Eds.), Handbuch Berufsbildung (pp. 279–291). Springer VS.

Arnold, R. (2021). Agile Führung aus Geschichten lernen [Agile leadership learning from experiences]. Carl Auer.

Arnold, R., & Schön, M. (2019). Ermöglichungsdidaktik: Ein Lernbuch [Enabling didactics: a textbook]. Hep Verlag.

Arnold, R., & Siebert, H. (1995). Konstruktivistische Erwachsenenbildung [Constructivist adult education]. Schneider.

Astin, A. W., Astin, H. S., & Lindholm, J. A. (2011). Cultivating the spirit: How college can enhance students’ inner lives. Jossey-Bass.

Bagnall, R. G., & Hodge, S. (2018). Contemporary adult and lifelong education and learning: An epistemological analysis. In M. Milana, S. Webb, J. Holford, R. Walker, & P. Jarvis (Eds.), Palgrave international handbook on adult and lifelong education and learning (pp. 13–34). Palgrave Macmillan.

Barbezat, D. P., & Bush, M. (2014). Contemplative practices in higher education. Jossey-Bass.

Bauerdick, J, Eichener, V., & Wegge, M. (1993). Qualifikationsanforderungen beim Einsatz von CIM und flexiblen Arbeitssystemen. In E. Staudt (Ed.), Personalentwicklung für die neue Fabrik (pp. 97–127). Springer.

Billett, S. (2011). Vocational education. Springer.

Bockler, J. (2021). Presencing with soul: Transpersonal perspectives on awareness-based social change practice. Journal of Awareness-Based Systems Change, 1 (1), 15–33. https://doi.org/10.47061/jabsc.v1i1.471

Boyatzis, R., & McKee, A. (2005). Resonant leadership. Renewing yourself and connecting with others through mindfulness, hope, and compassion. Harvard Business School Press.

Boyer, S. L., Edmondson, D. R., Artis, A. B., & Fleming, D. (2014). Self-directed learning: A tool for lifelong learning. Journal of Marketing Education, 36, 20–32. https://doi.org/10.1177/0273475313494010

Brater, M. (2020) Berufsbildung und Persönlichkeitsentwicklung in der historischen Dimension. In R. Arnold, A. Lipsmeier, & M. Rohs (Eds.), Handbuch Berufsbildung (pp. 3–14). Springer VS. https://doi:10.1007/978-3-658-19312-6_23

Brockmann, M., Clarke, L., & Winch, C. (Eds.) (2011). Knowledge, skills and competence in the European labour market: what’s a vocational qualification? Routledge.

Bruford, W. H. (1975). The German tradition of self-cultivation: ‘Bildung’ from Humboldt to Thomas Mann. Cambridge University Press.

Carruthers, P. (2017). The illusion of conscious thought. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 24 (9–10), 228–252.

Dekkers, R. (2017). Applied systems theory (2nd Ed.). Springer.

Dybbroe, B. (2012). Work identity and contradictory experiences of welfare workers in a life-history perspective. Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 13(2), Art. 21. https://doi.org/10.17169/FQS-13.3.1903

Eckoldt, M. (2017). Kann sich das Bewusstsein bewusst sein? [Can consciousness be conscious?] Carl-Auer.

Erpenbeck, J. (2018). Wertungen, Werte – Das Buch der Grundlagen für Bildung und Organisationsentwicklung [Valuations, values - The book of basics for education and organisational development]. Springer.

Erpenbeck, J., & Sauter, W. (2019). Wertungen, Werte – Das Buch der gezielten Werteentwicklung von Persönlichkeiten [Valuations, values – The book of targeted value development of personalities]. Springer.

Eschenbacher, S., & Fleming, T. (2020). Transformative dimensions of lifelong learning: Mezirow, Rorty and COVID-19. International Review of Education, 66, 657–672. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11159-020-09859-6

European Parliament Council (2008). Recommendation of the European Parliament and the Council of 23 April 2008 on the establishment of the European Qualifications Framework for lifelong learning. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32008H0506(01)&from=EL

Feuerborn, L. L., & Gueldner, B. (2019). Mindfulness and social-emotional competencies: Proposing connections through a review of the research. Mindfulness, 10, 1707–1720. https://doi: 0.1007/s12671-019-01101-1

Forbes, D. (2019). Mindfulness and its discontents: Education, self, and social transformation. Fernwood Publishing.

Gunnlaugson, O., Sarath, E., Scott, C., & Bai, H. (Eds.). (2014). Contemplative learning and inquiry across disciplines. State University of New York Press.

Husserl, E. (1931). Ideas: General introduction to a pure phenomenology. Allen & Unwin.

Husserl, E. (1970). The crisis of European sciences and transcendental phenomenology. Northwestern University Press.

Illeris, K. (2014). Transformative learning and identity. Journal of Transformative Education, 12(2), 148–163. https://doi.org/ 10.1177/1541344614548423

Kant, I. (1963). What is Enlightenment? In L. W. Beck (Ed. & Trans.), Kant on history (pp. 3–10). Bobbs-Merrill. (Original work published 1784)

Kegan, R. (2000). What form transforms? In J. Mezirow & Associates (Eds.), Learning as transformation: Critical perspectives on a theory in progress (pp. 35–70). Jossey-Bass.

Konsortium Bildungsberichterstattung (2006). Bildung in Deutschland. https://www.bildungsbericht.de/de/bildungsberichte-seit-2006/bildungsbericht-2006/pdf-bildungsbericht-2006/gesamtbericht.pdf

Langemeyer, I. (2015). Das Wissen der Achtsamkeit: Kooperative Kompetenz in komplexen Arbeitsprozessen [The knowledge of mindfulness: cooperative competence in complex work processes]. Waxmann.

Maclean, R., & Wilson, D. (Eds.) (2009). International handbook of education for the changing world of work: Bridging academic and vocational learning. Springer.

Mälkki, K. (2019). Coming to grips with edge-emotions: The gateway to critical reflection and transformative learning. In T. Fleming, A. Kokkos, & F. Finnegan (Eds.), European perspectives on transformation theory (pp. 59–73). Palgrave Macmillan

Marlowe, B. A., & Page, M. L. (1998). Creating and sustaining the constructivist classroom. Sage.

Maturana, H. R. (1978). Biology of language: The epistemology of reality. In G.A. Miller, & E. Lenneberg (Eds.), Psychology and biology of language and thought (pp. 27–63). Academic Press.

Maturana, H. R., & Varela, F. J. (1980). Autopoiesis and cognition: The realization of the living. Reidel.

McKee, A., Boyatzis, R., & Johnston, F. (2008). Becoming a resonant leader. Harvard Business Review Press.

Metzinger, T. (2009). The ego tunnel: The science of the mind and the myth of the self. Basic Books.

Mezirow, J., & Taylor, E. W. (Eds.) (2009). Transformative learning in practice: Insights from community, workplace, and higher education. Jossey-Bass.

Morris, T. H. (2019a). Adaptivity through self-directed learning to meet the challenges of our ever-changing world. Adult Learning, 30(2), 56–66. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1045159518814486

Morris, T. H. (2019b). Self-directed learning: A fundamental competence in a rapidly changing world. International Review of Education, 65, 633–653. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11159-019-09793-2

Morris, T. H. (2020). Transformative learning through mindfulness: Exploring the mechanism of change. Australian Journal of Adult Learning, 60(1), 44–65.

Mutius, B. von (2017). Disruptive Thinking: Das Denken, das der Zukunft gewachsen ist [Disruptive thinking: Thinking that is up to the future]. Gabal.

Palmer, P. J., Zajonc, A., & Scribner, M. (2010). The heart of higher education: A call to renewal. Jossey-Bass.

Permantier, M. (2019). Mindset matters: Shaping leadership and corporate culture for the future. Short Cuts.

Piaget, J. (1964). Part I: Cognitive development in children: Piaget development and learning. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 2(3), 176–186. https://doi.org/10.1002/tea.3660020306

Reb, J., Narayanan, J., & Chaturvedi, S. (2014). Leading mindfully: Two studies on the influence of supervisor trait mindfulness on employee well-being and performance. Mindfulness, 5, 36–45. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-012-0144-z

Reich, K. (1996). Systemisch-konstruktivistische Pädagogik [Systemic-constructivist pedagogy]. Luchterhand.

Rigby, D., Elk, S., & Berez, S. (2020). Doing agile right: Transformation without chaos. Harvard Business Review Press.

Rosa, H. (2019). Resonance: A sociology of our relationship to the world. Polity.

Roth, H. D. (2014). A pedagogy for the new field of contemplative studies. In O. Gunnlaugson, E. W. Sarath, C. Scott, & H. Bai (Eds.), Contemplative learning and inquiry across disciplines (pp. 97–115). State University of New York Press.

Rupprecht, S., Falke, P., Kohls, N., Tamdjidi, C., Wittmann, M., & Kersemaekers, W. (2019). Mindful leader development: How leaders experience the effects of mindfulness training on leader capabilities. Frontiers in Psychology, 10:1081. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01081

Scharmer, C. O. (2001). Self‐transcending knowledge: sensing and organizing around emerging opportunities. Journal of Knowledge Management, 5(2), 137–151. https://doi.org/10.1108/13673270110393185

Scharmer, C. O. (2009). Theory U: Leading from the future as it emerges. Berrett-Koehler.

Scharmer, C. O. (2018). The essentials of Theory U: Core principles and applications. Berrett-Koehler.

Senge, P., Scharmer, C. O., Jaworski, J., & Sue, F. B. (2005). Presence: Exploring profound change in people, organizations, and society. Brealey.

Senge, P., Smith, B., Kruschwitz, N., Laur, J., & Schley, S. (2008). The necessary revolution: Working together to create a sustainable world. Doubleday.

Sennett, R. (1998). The corrosion of character. Norton

Siebert, H. (2017). Lernen und Bildung Erwachsener [Adult learing and education]. Wbv.

Siegel, D.J. (2010). Mindsight. The new science of personal transformation. Random House.

Sloane, P. F. E. (2020). Berufsbildungsforschung. In R. Arnold, A. Lipsmeier, & M. Rohs (Eds.), Handbuch Berufsbildung (pp. 667–682). Springer VS.

Staudt, E. (Ed.) (1993). Personalentwicklung für die neue Fabrik. Springer.

Taylor, E. W., & Cranton, P. (Eds.) (2012). The handbook of transformative learning: Theory, research, and practice. Jossey-Bass.

Taylor, E. W., & Cranton, P. (2013). A theory in progress? Issues in transformative learning theory. European Journal for Research on Education and Learning of Adults, 4(1), 33–47. https://doi.org/10.3384/rela.2000-7426.rela5000

Teschmer, C. (2014). Mitgefühl als Weg zur Werte-Bildung [Compassion as a path to value formation]. V&R Unipress.

Thompson, E. (2007). Mind in life: Biology, phenomenology, and the sciences of mind. Harvard University Press.

VBW – Vereinigung der Bayerischen Wirtschaft (Eds.) (2015). Bildung. Mehr als Fachlichkeit. Waxmann.

Varela, F. J., Thompson, E., & Rosch, E. (2016). The embodied mind: Cognitive science and human experience. Revised Edition. The MIT Press.

Watzlawick, P. (1990). Munchhausen’s pigtail, or psychotherapy and reality. Norton.

Weinert, F. E. (2001). Concept of competence: A conceptual clarification. In D. S. Rychen, & L. H. Salganik (Eds.), Defining and selecting key competencies (pp. 45-65). Hogrefe & Huber.

Wittgenstein, L. (1977). Remarks on colour. Blackwell.

Published

2021-11-30

How to Cite

Arnold, R., & Schön, M. (2021). The Reflexible Person : Toward an Epistemological Learning Culture. Journal of Awareness-Based Systems Change, 1(2), 51-71. https://doi.org/10.47061/jabsc.v1i2.971

Issue

Section

Original Articles (Peer-Reviewed)